# Midterm 1 -- Closed book section

26 February, 1996

The entire exam is to be turned in at 1:05 PM. Work the closed
book section first and turn it in before you consult your books and
notes to work on the open book section.

## Problem 1. (18 points)

Give short definitions of the following four related terms and
describe how each is used in a modern stack-based computer.

- stack pointer
- base pointer
- push operator
- pop operator

## Problem 2. (6 points)

What are six typical arithmetic or logical instructions found in
modern microprocessors?

## Problem 3. (6 points)

Why does a computer need a "supervisor" mode?

## Problem 4. (6 points)

What are status codes and how are they used in computers?

## Problem 5. (6 points)

If a computer has 27 different opcodes, how many bits are needed
to encode the opcode field.

## Problem 6. (18 points)

What is the difference between indirect, indexed, and immediate
addressing modes. Describe how each is each useful in executing C
and/or Pascal programs.

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