To appreciate that algorithms for the same task can differ widely in performance
To understand the big-Oh notation
To estimate and compare the performance of algorithms
To write code to measure the running time of a program
Selection Sort
A sorting algorithm rearranges the elements of a collection so that they are stored in sorted order.
Selection sort sorts an array by repeatedly finding the smallest element of the unsorted tail region and moving it to the front.
Slow when run on large data sets.
Example: sorting an array of integers
11
9
17
5
12
Sorting an Array of Integers
Find the smallest and swap it with the first element
5
9
17
11
12
Find the next smallest. It is already in the correct place
5
9
17
11
12
Find the next smallest and swap it with first element of unsorted portion
5
9
11
17
12
Repeat
5
9
11
12
17
When the unsorted portion is of length 1, we are done
5
9
11
12
17
Selection Sort
In selection sort, pick
the smallest element
and swap it with the
first one. Pick the
smallest element of
the remaining ones
and swap it with the
next one, and so on.
Why do we need the temp variable in the swap method? What
would happen if you simply assigned a[i] to a[j] and a[j]
to a[i]?
Answer:
Dropping the temp variable would not work. Then a[i] and a[j]
would end up being the same value.
Self Check 14.2
What steps does the selection sort algorithm go through to sort the sequence 6
5 4 3 2 1?
Answer:
1
5
4
3
2
6
1
2
4
3
5
6
1
2
3
4
5
6
Self Check 14.3
How can you change the selection sort algorithm so that it sorts the elements in
descending order (that is, with the largest element at the beginning of the array)?
Answer:
In each step, find the maximum of the remaining
elements and swap it with the current
element
(or see Self Check 4).
Self Check 14.4
Suppose we modified the selection sort algorithm to start at the end of the array,
working toward the beginning. In each step, the current position is swapped
with the minimum. What is the result of this modification?
Answer:
The modified algorithm sorts the array in
descending order.
Profiling the Selection Sort Algorithm
We want to measure the time the algorithm takes to execute:
Exclude the time the program takes to load
Exclude output time
To measure the
running time of
a method, get
the current time
immediately before
and after the
method call.
We will create a StopWatch class to measure execution time of an algorithm:
Enter array size: 50000
Elapsed time: 13321 milliseconds
Selection Sort on Various Size Arrays
n
Milliseconds
10,000
786
20,000
2,148
30,000
4,796
40,000
9,192
50,000
13,321
60,000
19,299
Doubling the size of the array more than doubles the time needed to sort it .
Self Check 14.5
Approximately how many seconds would it take to sort a data set of 80,000 values?
Answer:
Four times as long as 40,000 values, or about 37 seconds.
Self Check 14.6
Look at the graph in Figure 1. What mathematical shape does it resemble?
Answer:
A parabola.
Analyzing the Performance of the Selection Sort Algorithm
In an array of size n, count how many times an array element is visited:
To find the smallest, visit n elements + 2 visits for the swap
To find the next smallest, visit (n - 1) elements + 2 visits for the swap
The last term is 2 elements visited to find the smallest + 2 visits for the swap
Analyzing the Performance of the Selection Sort Algorithm
The number of visits:
n + 2 + (n - 1) + 2 + (n - 2) + 2 + . . .+ 2 + 2
This can be simplified to n^{2 }/2 + 5n/2 - 3
5n/2 - 3 is small compared to n^{2} /2 – so let's
ignore it
Also ignore the 1/2 – it cancels out when comparing ratios
Analyzing the Performance of the Selection Sort Algorithm
The number of visits is of the order n^{2}
.
Computer scientists
use the big-Oh
notation to describe
the growth rate of
a function.
Using big-Oh notation: The number of visits is O(n^{2}).
Multiplying the number of elements in an array by 2 multiplies the
processing time by 4.
To convert to big-Oh notation: locate fastest-growing term, and ignore constant coefficient.
Self Check 14.7
If you increase the size of a data set tenfold, how much longer does it take to
sort it with the selection sort algorithm?
Answer:
It takes about 100 times longer.
Self Check 14.8
How large does n need to be so that 1/2 n^{2} is bigger than
5/2 n – 3?
Answer:
If n is 4, then n^{2} is 8 and 5/2 n – 3 is
7.
Self Check 14.9
Section 7.3.6 has two algorithms for removing an element from an array of
length n. How many array visits does each algorithm require on average?
Answer:
The first algorithm requires one visit, to
store the new element. The second algorithm
requires T(p) = 2 × (n – p – 1) visits, where p is
the location at which the element
is removed.
We don’t know where that element is, but if
elements are removed at random locations, on
average, half of the removals will be above the
middle and half below, so we can assume an
average p of n / 2 and T(n) = 2 × (n – n / 2 – 1) =
n
– 2.
Self Check 14.10
Describe the number of array visits in Self Check 9 using the big-Oh notation.
Answer:
The first algorithm is O(1), the second O(n).
Self Check 14.11
What is the big-Oh running time of checking whether an array is already sorted?
Answer:
We need to check that a[0] ≤ a[1], a[1] ≤ a[2],
and so on, visiting 2n – 2 elements. Therefore,
the running time is O(n
).
Self Check 14.12
Consider this algorithm for sorting an array. Set k to the length of the array. Find
the maximum of the first k elements. Remove it, using the second algorithm of
Section 7.3.6. Decrement k and place the removed element into the k^{th} position.
Stop if k is 1. What is the algorithm’s running time in big-Oh notation?
Answer:
Let n be the length of the array. In the kth
step, we need k visits to find the minimum.
To
remove it, we need an average of k
– 2 visits
(see Self Check 9). One additional visit is
required to add it to the end. Thus, the kth step
requires 2k – 1 visits.
Because k goes from n to
2, the total number of visits is
public class InsertionSorter
{
/**
Sorts an array, using insertion sort.
@param a the array to sort
*/
public static void sort(int[] a)
{
for (int i = 1; i < a.length; i++)
{
int next = a[i];
// Move all larger elements up
int j = i;
while (j > 0 && a[j - 1] > next)
{
a[j] = a[j - 1];
j--;
}
// Insert the element
a[j] = next;
}
}
}
Insertion Sort
Insertion sort is the method that many people
use to sort playing cards. Pick up one card at
a time and insert it so that the cards stay sorted.
Insertion sort is an O(n^{2}) algorithm.
Merge Sort
Sorts an array by
Cutting the array in half
Recursively sorting each half
Merging the sorted halves
Dramatically faster than the selection sort
In merge sort, one sorts each half, then merges the sorted halves.
Merge Sort Example
Divide an array in half and sort each half
Merge the two sorted arrays into a single sorted array
Merge Sort
public static void sort(int[] a)
{
if (a.length <= 1) { return; }
int[] first = new int[a.length / 2];
int[] second = new int[a.length - first.length];
// Copy the first half of a into first, the second half into second
. . .
sort(first);
sort(second);
merge(first, second, a);
}
Why does only one of the two while loops at the end of the merge
method do any work?
Answer:
When the preceding while loop ends, the loop condition must be false,
that is,
iFirst >= first.length or iSecond >= second.length (De
Morgan's Law).
Self Check 14.14
Manually run the merge sort algorithm on the array 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1.
Answer:
First sort 8 7 6 5.
Recursively, first sort 8 7.
Recursively, first sort 8. It's sorted.
Sort 7. It's sorted.
Merge them: 7 8.
Do the same with 6 5 to get 5 6.
Merge them to 5 6 7 8.
Do the same with 4 3 2 1: Sort 4 3 by sorting 4 and 3 and merging them to 3 4.
Sort 2 1 by sorting 2 and 1 and merging them to 1 2.
Merge 3 4 and 1 2 to 1 2 3 4.
Finally, merge 5 6 7 8 and 1 2 3 4 to 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8.
Self Check 14.15
The merge sort algorithm processes an array by recursively processing two
halves. Describe a similar
recursive algorithm for computing the sum of all
elements in an array.
Answer:
If the array size is 1, return its only element
as the sum. Otherwise, recursively compute
the sum of the first and second subarray and
return the sum of these two values.
Analyzing the Merge Sort Algorithm
In an array of size n, count how many times an array element is visited.
Assume n is a power of 2: n = 2^{m}.
Calculate the number of visits to create the two sub-arrays and then merge the
two sorted arrays:
3 visits to merge each element or 3n visits
2n visits to create the two sub-arrays
total of 5n visits
Analyzing the Merge Sort Algorithm
Let T(n) denote the number of visits to sort an array of n
elements then
T(n) = T(n / 2) + T(n / 2) + 5n or
T(n) = 2T(n / 2) + 5n
The visits for an array of size n / 2 is: T(n / 2) =
2T(n / 4) + 5 n / 2
So T(n) = 2 × 2T( n /4) +5n + 5n
The visits for an array of size n / 4 is: T(n / 4)
= 2T(n / 8) + 5 n / 4
So T(n) = 2 × 2 × 2T(n / 8) + 5n + 5n + 5n
Analyzing Merge Sort Algorithm
Repeating the process k times: T(n) = 2^{
k}T( n / 2^{k}) +5nk
Since n = 2^{m}, when k = m: T(n) = 2^{m}T(n / 2^{m}) +5nm
T(n) = nT(1) +5nm
T(n) = n + 5nlog_{2}(n)
Analyzing Merge Sort Algorithm
To establish growth order:
Drop the lower-order term n
Drop the constant factor 5
Drop the base of the logarithm since all logarithms are related by a constant factor
We are left with n log(n)
Using big-Oh notation: number of visits is O(n log(n)).
Merge Sort Vs Selection Sort
Selection sort is an O(n^{2}) algorithm.
Merge sort is an O(n log(n)) algorithm.
The n log(n) function grows much more slowly than n^{2}.
Merge Sort Timing vs. Selection Sort
n
Merge Sort (milliseconds)
Selection Sort (milliseconds)
10,000
40
786
20,000
73
2,148
30,000
134
4,796
40,000
170
9,192
50,000
192
13,321
60,000
205
19,299
Self Check 14.16
Given the timing data for the merge sort algorithm in the table at the beginning
of this section, how long would it take to sort an array of 100,000 values?
Answer:
Approximately 100,000 × log(100,000) / 50,000 × log(50,000) = 2 ×
5 / 4.7 = 2.13 times the time required for 50,000 values. That's 2.13 × 97
milliseconds or approximately 409 milliseconds.
Self Check 14.17
If you double the size of an array, how much longer will the merge sort algorithm take to sort the new array?
Answer:
(2n log(2n) / n log(n)) = 2(1+ log(2) / log(n)). For n > 2, that is a value < 3.
The Quicksort Algorithm
No temporary arrays are required.
Divide and conquer
Partition the range
Sort each partition
In quicksort, one partitions the elements into
two groups, holding the smaller and larger
elements. Then one sorts each group.
The Quicksort Algorithm
public void sort(int from, int to)
{
if (from >= to) return;
int p = partition(from, to);
sort(from, p);
sort(p + 1, to);
}
The Quicksort Algorithm
Starting range
A partition of the range so that no element in first section is larger than element in second section
Recursively apply the algorithm until array is sorted
The Quicksort Algorithm
private static int partition(int[] a, int from, int to)
{
int pivot = a[from];
int i = from - 1;
int j = to + 1;
while (i < j)
{
i++; while (a[i] < pivot) { i++; }
j--; while (a[j] > pivot) { j--; }
if (i < j) { ArrayUtil.swap(a, i, j); }
}
return j;
}
The Quicksort Algorithm - Partitioning
The Quicksort Algorithm
On average, the quicksort algorithm is an O(n log(n)) algorithm.
Its worst-case run-time behavior is O(n²).
If the
pivot element is chosen as the first element of the region,
That worst-case behavior occurs
when the input set is already sorted
Searching
Linear search: also called sequential search
Examines all values in an array until it finds a match or reaches the end
Number of visits for a linear search of an array of n elements:
The average search visits n/2 elements
The maximum visits is n
A linear search locates a value in an array in O(n) steps
[46, 99, 45, 57, 64, 95, 81, 69, 11, 97, 6, 85, 61, 88, 29, 65, 83, 88, 45, 88]
Enter number to search for, -1 to quit: 12
Found in position -1
Enter number to search for, -1 to quit: -1
Self Check 14.11
Suppose you need to look through 1,000,000 records to find a telephone number.
How many records do you expect to search before finding the number?
Answer:
On average, you'd make 500,000 comparisons.
Self Check 14.12
Why can't you use a for each loop for (int element : a) in the search
method?
Answer:
The search method returns the index at which the match occurs, not the data
stored at that location.
Binary Search
A binary search locates a value in a sorted array by:
Determining whether the value occurs in the first or second half
Then repeating the search in one of the halves
The size of the search is cut in half with each step.
Binary Search
Searching for 15 in this array
The last value in the first half is 9
So look in the second (darker colored) half
The last value of the first half of this sequence is 17
Look in the darker colored sequence
The last value of the first half of this very short sequence is 12,
This is smaller than the value that we are searching,
Count the number of visits to search a sorted array of size n
We visit one element (the middle element) then search either the left or right
subarray
Thus: T(n) = T(n/2) + 1
If n is n / 2, then T(n / 2) = T(n / 4) + 1
Substituting into the original equation: T(n) = T(n / 4) + 2
This generalizes to: T(n) = T(n / 2^{k})
+ k
Binary Search
Assume n is a power of 2, n = 2^{m}
where m = log_{2}(n)
Then: T(n) = 1 + log_{2}(n)
A binary search
locates a value in
a sorted array in
O(log(n)) steps.
Binary Search
Should we sort an array before searching?
Linear search - O(n)
Binary search - O(n log(n))
If you search the array only once
Linear search is more efficient
If you will make many searches
Worthwhile to sort and use binary search
Self Check 14.18
Suppose you need to look through 1,000,000 records to find a telephone number.
How many records do you expect to search before finding the number?
Answer:
On average, you’d make 500,000 comparisons
Self Check 14.19
Why can’t you use a “for each” loop for (int element : a) in the search method?
Answer: The search method returns the index at which
the match occurs, not the data stored at that
location.
Self Check 14.20
Suppose you need to look through a sorted array with 1,000,000 elements to find
a value. Using the binary search algorithm, how many records do you expect to
search before finding the value?
Answer: You would search about 20. (The binary log of
1,024 is 10.)
Problem Solving: Estimating the Running Time of an Algorithm - Linear time
Example: an algorithm that counts how many elements have a particular value
int count = 0;
for (int i = 0; i < a.length; i++)
{
if (a[i] == value) { count++; }
}
Pattern of array element visits
There are a fixed number of actions in each visit independent of n.
A loop with n iterations has O(n) running time if each
step consists of a
fixed number
of actions.
Problem Solving: Estimating the Running Time of an Algorithm - Linear time
Example: an algorithm to determine if a value occurs in the array
boolean found = false;
for (int i = 0; !found && i < a.length; i++)
{
if (a[i] == value) { found = true; }
}
Search may stop in the middle
Still O(n) because we may have to traverse the whole array.
Problem Solving: Estimating the Running Time of an Algorithm - Quadratic time
Problem: Find the most frequent element in an array.
Try it with this array
Count how often each element occurs.
Put the counts in an array
Find the maximum count
It is 3 and the corresponding value in original array is 7
Problem Solving: Estimating the Running Time of an Algorithm - Quadratic time
Estimate how long it takes to compute the counts
for (int i = 0; i < a.length; i++)
{
counts[i] = Count how often a[i] occurs in a
}
We visit each array element once - O(n)
Count the number of times that element occurs - O(n)
Total running time - O(n²)
Three phases in the algorithm
Compute all counts. - O(n²)
Compute the maximum. O(n)
Find the maximum in the counts. O(n)
A loop with n
iterations has O(n²)
running time if each
step takes O(n) time.
The big-Oh running
time for doing
several steps in a row
is the largest of the
big-Oh times for
each step.
The Triangle Pattern
Try to speed up the algorithm for finding the most frequent element.
Idea - Before counting an element, check that it didn't already occur in the array
At each step, the work is O(i)
In the third iteration, visit a[0] and a[1] again
n²/2 lightbulbs are visited (light up)
That is still O(n²)
A loop with n
iterations has
O(n²) running time
if the i^{th} step takes
O( i ) time.
Problem Solving: Estimating the Running Time of an Algorithm - Logarithmic time
Logarithmic time estimates arise from algorithms that cut work in half in each step.
Another ideas for finding the most frequent element in an array:
Sort the array first
This is O(n log(n)) time
Traverse the array and count how many times you have seen that element:
The code
int count = 0;
for (int i = 0; i < a.length; i++)
{
count++;
if (i == a.length - 1 || a[i] != a[i + 1])
{
counts[i] = count;
count = 0;
}
}
Problem Solving: Estimating the Running Time of an Algorithm - Logarithmic time
This takes the same amount of work per iteration:
visits two elements
2n which is O(n)
Running time of entire algorithm is O(n log(n)).
An algorithm that
cuts the size of work
in half in each step
runs in O(log(n)) time.
Self Check 14.21
What is the “light bulb pattern” of visits in the following algorithm to check
whether an array is a palindrome?
for (int i = 0; i < a.length / 2; i++)
{
if (a[i] != a[a.length - 1 - i]) { return false; }
}
return true;
Answer:
Self Check 14.22
What is the big-Oh running time of the following algorithm to check whether
the first element is duplicated in an array?
for (int i = 1; i < a.length; i++)
{
if (a[0] == a[i]) { return true; }
}
return false;
Answer:
It is an O(n) algorithm.
Self Check 14.23
What is the big-Oh running time of the following algorithm to check whether an
array has a duplicate value?
for (int i = 0; i < a.length; i++)
{
for (j = i + 1; j < a.length; j++)
{
if (a[i] == a[j]) { return true; }
}
}
return false;
Answer:
It is an O(n²) algorithm—the number of visits follows a triangle pattern.
Self Check 14.24
Describe an O(n log(n)) algorithm for checking whether an array has duplicates.
Answer:
Sort the array, then make a linear scan to check for adjacent duplicates
Self Check 14.25
What is the big-Oh running time of the following algorithm to find an element
in an n × n array?
for (int i = 0; i < n; i++)
{
for (j = 0; j < n; j++)
{
if (a[i][j] == value) { return true; }
}
}
return false;
Answer:
It is an O(n²) algorithm—the outer and inner loops each have n iterations.
Self Check 14.26
If you apply the algorithm of Section 14.7.4 to an n × n array, what is the big-Oh
efficiency of finding the most frequent element in terms of n?
Answer: Because an n × n array has m = n² elements,
and the algorithm in Section 14.7.4, when
applied to an array with m elements, is
O(m log(m)), we have an O(n²log(n)) algorithm.
Recall that log(n²) = 2 log(n), and the
factor of 2 is irrelevant in the big-Oh notation.
Sorting and Searching in the Java Library - Sorting
You do not need to write sorting and searching algorithms
Use methods in the Arrays and Collections classes
The Arrays class contains static sort methods.
To sort an array of integers:
int[] a = . . . ;
Arrays.sort(a);
That sort method uses the Quicksort algorithm (see Special Topic 14.3).
Sorting and Searching in the Java Library - Binary Search
Arrays and Collections classes contain static binarySearch methods.
If the element is not found, returns -k - 1
Where k is the position before which the element should be inserted
For example
int[] a = { 1, 4, 9 };
int v = 7;
int pos = Arrays.binarySearch(a, v);
// Returns –3; v should be inserted before position 2
Comparing Objects
Arrays.sort sorts objects of classes that implement Comparable interface:
public interface Comparable
{
int compareTo(Object otherObject);
}
The call a.compareTo(b) returns
A negative number if a should come before b
0 if a and b are the same
A positive number otherwise
Comparing Objects
Several classes in Java (e.g. String and Date) implement Comparable.
You can implement Comparable interface for your own classes.
The Country class could implement Comparable:
public class Country implements Comparable
{
public int compareTo(Object otherObject)
{
Country other = (Country) otherObject;
if (area < other.area) { return -1; }
else if (area == other.area) { return 0; }
else { return 1; }
}
}
You could pass an array of countries to Arrays.sort
Country[] countries = new Country[n];
// Add countries
Arrays.sort(countries); // Sorts by increasing area
Self Check 14.27
Why can't the Arrays.sort method sort an array of Rectangle
objects?
Answer:
The Rectangle class does not implement the Comparable
interface.
Self Check 14.28
What steps would you need to take to sort an array of BankAccount
objects by increasing balance?
Answer:
The BankAccount class needs to implement the Comparable
interface. Its compareTo method must compare the bank balances.
Self Check 14.29
Why is it useful that the Arrays.binarySearch method indicates the position where
a missing element should be inserted?
Answer: Then you know where to insert it so that the
array stays sorted, and you can keep using
binary search.
Self Check 14.30
Why does Arrays.binarySearch return –k – 1 and not –k to indicate that a value is
not present and should be inserted before position k?
Answer: Otherwise, you would not know whether a
value is present when the method returns 0.